本书主要作者阿伦森博士是美国心理学会（APA）120年历史上唯一一个包揽其三个主要奖项的人，即杰出写作奖(1975)、杰出教学奖（1980）和杰出研究奖（1999）。他独立撰写的《社会动物》（The Social Animal） 被誉为“美国社会心理学的《圣经》”。本书作为教材版，同样是美国高校广泛使用的社会心理学教材。
埃略特•阿伦森（Elliot Aronson），世界上最负盛名的社会心理学家之一。2002年他当选20世纪百名最杰出心理学家之一，现在是加利福尼亚大学圣克鲁兹分校的名誉教授和斯坦福大学的特邀访问教授。阿伦森博士是美国心理学会（APA）120年历史上唯一一个包揽其三个主要奖项的人，即杰出写作奖（1975）、杰出教学奖（1980）和杰出研究奖（1999），许多其他的专业团体也对他的研究和教学作出嘉奖。他独立撰写的《社会动物》（The Social Animal）被誉为“美国社会心理学的《圣经》”，自1972年第一版以来至今全球销量数千万册，是社会心理学领域最有影响力的著作。
提摩太•D•威尔逊（Timothy D. Wilson），密歇根大学博士。他在弗吉尼亚大学教授社会心理学导论课程已经有20多年，最近获得了“全美大学杰出教学奖”。2009年，他被提名为美国艺术与科学学院成员。
罗宾•M•埃克特（Robin M. Akert），普林斯顿大学实验社会心理学博士。她在韦尔兹利学院教授社会心理学课程近30年，她在从业初期就在那里获得了杰出教学的皮南斯基奖。
CHAPTER 1 Introducing Social Psychology 社会心理学导论 1
CHAPTER 2 Methodology：How Social Psychologists Do Research
CHAPTER 3 Social Cognition：How We Think about the Social World
CHAPTER 4 Social Perception：How We Come to Understand Other People
CHAPTER 5 The Self：Understanding Ourselves in a Social Context
CHAPTER 6 The Need to Justify Our Actions：The Costs and Benefits of
Dissonance Reduction 合理化行为的需要：减少失调的代价和收益 148
CHAPTER 7 Attitudes and Attitude Change：Influencing Thoughts and Feelings
CHAPTER 8 Conformity：Influencing Behavior 从众：影响行为 210
CHAPTER 9 Group Processes：Influence in Social Groups
CHAPTER 10 Interpersonal Attraction：From First Impressions to Close
Relationships 人际吸引：从第一印象到亲密关系 286
CHAPTER 11 Prosocial Behavior：Why Do People Help?
CHAPTER 12 Aggression：Why Do We Hurt Other People? Can We Prevent It?
CHAPTER 13 Prejudice：Causes and Cures 偏见：原因与消除 386
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION 1 Making a Difference with Social Psychology：Attaining a Sustainable Future
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION 2 Social Psychology and Health
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION 3 Social Psychology and the Law
When we began writing this book, our overriding goal was to capture the excitement of social psychology. We have been pleased to hear, in many kind letters and e-mail messages from professors and students, that we succeeded. One of our favorites was from a student who said that the book was so interesting that she always saved it for last, to reward herself for finishing her other work.With that one student, at least, we succeeded in making our book an enjoyable, fascinating story, not a dry report of facts and figures.
There is always room for improvement, however, and our goal in this, the seventh edition, is to make the field of social psychology an even better read. When we teach the course, there is nothing more gratifying than seeing the sleepy students in the back row sit up with interest and say, “Wow, I didn’t know that!Now that’s interesting.” We hope that students who read our book will have that very same reaction.
What’s New in This Edition?
We are pleased to add two new features to this edition that we believe will appeal greatly to students. The first being the, “Critical Thinking: How Could You Use This?” feature. In Chapter 9, for example, we point out to students that sooner or later they will be part of a group that needs to make an important decision, and invite them to think about how they might use concepts from
the chapter to ensure that the group makes the best decision it can. The purpose of this feature is to encourage students to think critically about the material and apply it to their own lives.
In addition, we added sample test questions at the end of each chapter.Both of these new features, we believe, will be of substantial help in teaching students how to approach the material presented in the book.
In addition to adding these new features we have updated the seventh edition substantially with numerous references to new research. Here is a sampling of the new research that is covered:
•A brand new section at the end of each chapter called, “Critical Thinking: How Could You Use This?” We pose questions to students about their everyday lives—ones that they should find interesting and intriguing—and ask them to address the questions using one or more of the major concepts from the chapter. The purpose of this feature is to encourage students to think critically about the material and apply it to their own lives.
•Also new to this edition are end of chapter sample test questions that are designed to communicate how to study and learn the material. These questions, which are mostly from our own test files, are critical-thinking type questions that are designed to encourage students to understand social psychological concepts and apply them to new situations, rather than viewing the material as a set of facts to be memorized.
•Chapter 2, “Methodology: How Social Psychologists Do Research” includes a new section entitled, “New Frontiers in Social Psychological Research.” This section discusses new methods and approaches that social psychologists have adopted in recent years, including cross-cultural research, evolutionary psychology, and social neuroscience.
•Chapter 3, “Social Cognition: How We Think about the Social World,” has been updated with over 40 references to recent research.We added a major new section entitled “Cultural Differences in Social Cognition” that discusses cultural influences on schemas and recent research
on holistic versus analytic thinking in different cultures.
•In Chapter 4, “Social Perception: How We Come to Understand Other People,” we have updated the section on nonverbal communication,discussing several recent studies that address the evolutionary significance of facial expressions of emotion (for example, the work on pride and shame by Tracy & Matsumoto, 2008). We have revised and updated the section on attribution and culture. We begin this section with holistic versus analytic thinking, discussing the research of Masuda and colleagues(2008). We continue with studies that have used a social neuroscience methodology to study cultural differences in attribution, discussing the work of Hedden and colleagues (2008) and Lewis and colleagues (2008). In the area of attributional biases, we include new research on how perceptual saliency affects the correspondence bias in police interrogations and new research on cultural differences in the self-serving bias.
•Chapter 5 has been reorganized and renamed, “The Self: Understanding Ourselves in a Social Context,” to reflect the fact that it is includes a broad coverage of research on the self and not just self-knowledge. Reflecting the broader coverage of research on the self, there is a new major heading called, “Self-Control: The Executive Function Of The Self” that discusses recent research on self-regulation. There is also increased coverage of cultural differences in the self.
•In Chapter 6, “The Need to Justify Our Actions,” we have sharpened and updated our coverage of self-justification and included some new research on cultural differences. We have also included some recent research showing cognitive dissonance in monkeys. We have also expanded our coverage of research by Harmon-Jones showing differences in brain activity during the experi- ence of dissonance and dissonance reduction.
•Chapter 7, “Attitudes and Attitude Change: Influencing Thoughts and Feelings,” includes over 50 references to recent research. There is an expanded discussion of implicit attitudes, including recent research on the origins of implicit attitudes. We added a new section with the heading “Confidence in One’s Thoughts and Attitude Change” that discusses recent research by Petty and Brinol and colleagues. Finally, we revised substantially the section on subliminal advertising, with new research examples, and added a section on the effects of the media on attitudes toward weight in men and women.
•Chapter 8, “Conformity: Influencing Behavior,” includes over 45 new references to recent research. The opening vignette (the McDonald’s hoax )has been updated to reflect the recent conclusion of the suspect’s criminal trial. We have substantially revised the section on injunctive and descriptive norms, including discussion of the “boomerang effect.” We discuss new research on the use of informational conformity to change people’s behavior. The section on body image and conformity has also been updated with recent research. A major new section has been added, “The Obedience Studies, Then and Now,” which discusses the startling results of Jerry Burger’s (2009) research, the first replication of the Milgram obedience study in the United States in 30 years. This section has also been expanded to include a discussion of the ethical issues surrounding the obedience studies.
•Chapter 9, “Group Processes: Influence in Social Groups” has a new opening vignette that discusses President George W. Bush’s decision to initiate the Iraq War. Later in the chapter we return to this example (in a “Connections” feature) that discusses whether the decision to invade Iraq was the result of group-think, based on recent books by Bob Woodward, Scott McClelland, and others. The section on “Why People Join Groups” has been revised to include research on social rejection and social identity, and the section on gender and leadership is updated with a discussion of recent research on the “glass cliff.”
•Chapter 10, “Interpersonal Attraction: From First Impressions to Close Relationships,” includes over 50 new references to recent research. The section on evolution and love has been substantially revised. For example, recent research by Johnston and colleagues (2001) and Gangestad and colleagues (2007) is presented, which focuses on how the menstrual/ovulatory cycle affects women’s perceptions of male attractiveness. A second major addition is to the attachment styles section, which focuses on the genetic contribution to attachment styles, and discusses the recent work of Gillath and colleagues (2008) and Donnellan and colleagues (2008). Additional new material and revisions occur throughout the chapter, for example, in the sections on propinquity, similarity, facial attractiveness, assumptions about attractive people, and cultural definitions of love.
•Chapter 11, “Prosocial Behavior: Why Do People Help?” features two new Try It! exercises. This popular feature makes concepts from social psychology concrete and helps you see how they can be applied to your own life. Also, discussions of group selection, what causes people to feel empathy, and research on religion and prosocial behavior have been added.
•In Chapter 12, “Aggression: Why We Hurt Other People,” we have added comments on Craig Anderson’s recent study (2009) on the possible effects of global warming on aggression. We have also discussed Bushman’s (2007) research on scriptural violence and aggressive behavior. We have also included some recent research on building empathy as a way of curbing aggression.
•In Chapter 13, “Prejudice: Causes and Cures,” one of the major additions is on the election of an African American to the presidency. It has produced what one social psychologist has dubbed the Obama effect. Shortly after the election of Barack Obama, researchers were able to show two consequences of that election. Plant and colleagues (2009) showed a decrease in prejudice against African Americans; Dillon (2009) showed an apparent decrease in stereotype threat among African American test takers.
•Social Psychology in Action 1, “Making a Difference with Social Psychology: Attaining a Sustainable Future,” was new to the previous edition. We believe it was a timely addition, given current interest in global warming and other environmental issues, as well as the more general question of how social psychology can be used to address important social problems. We updated the chapter in this edition with a discussion of recent research, including studies by Goldstein, Cialdini, and Griskevicius (2008) on getting hotel guests to reuse their towels, research by Graham, Koo, and Wilson (in press) on how to get college students to conserve energy by driving less, and a study by Holland, Aarts, and Langendam (2006) on getting people to recycle more. Finally, in the section, “What Makes People Happy?” we added a description of a study by Dunn, Aknin, and Norton (2008) showing that helping others makes people happy.
•Social Psychology in Action 2: “Social Psychology and Health” includes a new opening vignette, namely a true story about a woman who showed remarkable resilience after losing 12 family members in a four-year period. The section on social support is completely revised, including the addition of recent reseach by Shelley Taylor and colleagues on cultural differences in social support and research by Niall Bolger and colleagues on visible versus invisible social support.
•Social Psychology in Action 3: “Social Psychology and the Law” has been updated considerably. For example, the section on line-ups and how to improve them is updated with an example of recent research by Gary Wells, research on individual differences in detecting lies by Bond and DePaulo (2008), and a study on recovered memories by Geraerts and colleagues (2007).
Social psychology comes alive for students when they understand the whole context of the field: how theories inspire research, why research is performed as it is, how further research triggers yet new avenues of study. We have tried to convey our own fascination with the research process in a down-to-earth, meaningful way and have presented the results of the scientific process in terms of the everyday experience of the reader; however, we did not want to “water down” our presentation of the field. In a world where human behavior can be endlessly surprising and where research results can be quite counterintuitive, students need a firm foundation on which to build their understanding of this challenging discipline.
The main way we try to engage students is with a storytelling approach. Social psychology is full of good stories, such as how the Holocaust inspired investigations into obedience to authority and how reactions to the marriage of the crown prince of Japan to Masako Owada, a career diplomat, illustrates cultural differences in the self-concept.By placing research in a real-world context, we make the material more familiar, understandable, and memorable. Each chapter begins with a real-life vignette that illustrates the concepts to come. We refer to this event at several points in the chapter, clarifying to students the relevance of the material they are learning. Examples of the pening vignettes include the tragic death of Amadou Diallo, who was shot 41 times by four white police officers, as he reached for his wallet in the vestibule of his New York apartment building (Chapter 3, “Social Cognition: How We Think about the Social World”), and some amazing acts of altruism at the sites of the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 (Chapter 11, “Prosocial Behavior: Why do People Help?”).
We also weave “mini-stories” into each chapter that both illustrate specific concepts and bring the material to life. For each one, we first describe an example of a real-life phenomenon that is designed to pique students’ interest. These stories are taken from current events, literature, and our own lives. Next, we describe an experiment that attempts to explain the phenomenon. This experiment is typically described in some detail because we believe that students should not only learn the major theories in social psychology, but also understand and appreciate the methods used to test those theories. For example, in Chapter 4 on social perception, we introduce the correspondence bias by discussing public reaction to an event celebrating Rosa Parks’s courageous refusal in 1955 to move to the back of the bus in segregationist Montgomery, Alabama. In 2005, at the time of her death, transit companies across America posted signs in their city buses, asking people to leave the seat behind the driver empty for the day, in tribute to her. Despite the sign, some people sat in the seat anyway. A journalist, traveling on New York City buses, asked other riders what they thought of these “sitters.” Very negative internal attributions were made about them (e.g., that they were disrespectful, contemptuous or even racist). In fact, the explanation for their behavior was typically situational, that is, something external to them as a person. They hadn’t seen the sign, which was small in size and lost in the visual clutter of other signs in the bus, and therefore didn’t know that they weren’t supposed to sit in that seat. We invite you to thumb through the book to find examples of these mini-stories.
Last but not least, we discuss the methods used by social psychologists in some detail. How can “boring” details about methodology be part of a storytelling approach, you might ask? We believe that part of what makes the story of social psycyhology so interesting is explaining to students how to test hypotheses scientifically. In recent years, the trend has been for textbooks to include only short sections on research methodology and provide only brief descriptions of the findings of individual studies. In this book, we integrate the science and methodology of the field into our story in several ways. First, we devote an entire chapter to methodology (Chapter 2). We use our storytelling approach by presenting two compelling real-world problems related to violence and aggression: Does pornography promote violence against women? Why don’t bystanders intervene more to help victims of violence? We then use actual research studies on these questions to illustrate the three major scientific methods (observational research, correlational research, and experimental research). Rather than a dry recitation of methodological principles, the scientific method unfolds like a story with a “hook” (what are the causes of real-world aggression and apathy toward violence?) and a moral (such interesting, real-world questions can be addressed scientifically). We have been pleased by the positive reactions to this chapter in the previous editions.
Second, we describe prototypical studies in more detail than most texts. We discuss how a study was set up, what the research participants perceived and did, how the research design derives from theoretical issues, and the ways in which the findings support the initial hypotheses. We often ask readers to pretend that they were participants so they can better understand the study from the participants’ point of view. Whenever pertinent, we’ve also included anecdotal information about how a study was done or came to be; these brief stories allow readers insights into the heretofore hidden world of creating research. See, for example, the description of how Nisbett and Wilson (1977) designed one of their experiments on the accuracy of people’s causal inferences in Chapter 5 and the description of the origins of Aronson’s jigsaw puzzle technique in Chapter 13.
Finally, we include a balanced coverage of classic and modern research. The field of social psychology is expanding rapidly, and exciting new work is being done in all areas of the discipline. In this seventh edition, we have added a great deal of new material, describing dozens of major studies done within the past few years. We have added hundreds of references from the past few years. Thus the book provides thorough coverage of up-to-date, cutting-edge research. But by emphasizing what is new, some texts have a tendency to ignore what is old.We have tried to strike a balance between the latest research findings and classic research in social psychology. Some older studies (e.g., early work in dissonance, conformity, and attribution) deserve their status as classics and are important cornerstones of the discipline. For example, unlike several other current texts, we present detailed descriptions of the Schachter and Singer (1962) study on misattribution of emotion (Chapter 5), the Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) dissonance study (Chapter 6), and the Asch (1956), and Sherif (1936) conformity studies (Chapter 8). We then bring up the older theories to date, following our discussions of the classics with modern approaches to the same topics. This allows students to experience the continuity and depth of the field, rather than regarding it as a collection of studies published in the past few years.