撒穆尔•伊诺克•斯通普夫（Samuel Enoch Stumpf，1918—1998），芝加哥大学哲学博士、哈佛大学福特研究员、牛津大学洛克菲勒研究员。他担任万德比尔特大学哲学系主任有15年之久，并曾出任爱荷华的康奈尔学院的校长。斯通普夫也是万德比尔特大学的法律哲学教授和医学哲学教授，在哲学、医学伦理学和法理学等领域均颇有建树。
詹姆斯•菲泽（James Fieser），普渡大学博士，现任田纳西大学哲学教授。著述有《道德哲学史》（Moral Philosophy through the Ages，2001），与人合著有《哲学入门》（A Historical Introduction to Philosophy，2002）。菲泽还与人合编《世界宗教经典》（Scriptures of the World’s Religions）一书，并创建了《哲学网络百科全书》（Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy）。
Part One ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHY
Chapter 1 Socrates’ Predecessors 苏格拉底的前辈 3
Chapter 2 The Sophists and Socrates 智者派与苏格拉底 26
Chapter 3 Plato 柏拉图 41
Chapter 4 Aristotle 亚里士多德 68
Part Two HELLENISTIC AND MEDIEVAL PHILOSOPHY
Chapter 5 Classical Philosophy after Aristotle
Chapter 6 Augustine 奥古斯丁 113
Chapter 7 Philosophy in the Early Middle Ages
Chapter 8 Aquinas and His Late Medieval Successors
Part Three EARLY MODERN PHILOSOPHY
Chapter 9 Philosophy during the Renaissance
Chapter 10 Rationalism on the Continent 大陆理性主义 204
Chapter 11 Empiricism in Britain 英国经验主义 229
Chapter 12 Enlightenment Philosophy 启蒙哲学 254
Part Four LATE MODERN AND NINETEENTHCENTURY PHILOSOPHY
第四部分 近代晚期和19 世纪哲学
Chapter 13 Kant 康 德 271
Chapter 14 German Idealism 德国唯心主义 295
Chapter 15 Utilitarianism and Positivism
Chapter 16 Kierkegaard, Marx, and Nietzsche
Part Five TWENTIETH-CENTURY AND CONTEMPORARY PHILOSOPHY
第五部分 20 世纪和当代哲学
Chapter 17 Pragmatism and Process Philosophy
Chapter 18 Analytic Philosophy 分析哲学 398
Chapter 19 Phenomenology and Existentialism
Chapter 20 Recent Philosophy 晚近的哲学 445
Chapter 2 The Sophists and Socrates
Many Athenians mistook Socrates for a Sophist. The fact is that Socrates was one of the Sophists’ keenest critics. That Socrates should have been identified with them was due in part to his relentless analysis of any and every subject—a technique also employed by the Sophists.
Nevertheless, there was a fundamental difference between the Sophists and Socrates. The Sophists split hairs to show that equally good arguments could be advanced on either side of any issue. They were skeptics who doubted that there could be any certain or reliable knowledge. Moreover, they concluded that since all knowledge is relative, moral standards are also relative. Socrates, on the other hand, had a different motivation for his constant argumentation. He was committed to the pursuit of truth and considered it his mission to seek out the basis for stable and certain knowledge. He was also attempting to discover the foundation of the good life. As he pursued his mission, Socrates devised a method for arriving at truth; he linked knowing and doing, so that to know the good is to do the good. In that sense “knowledge is virtue.” Unlike the Sophists, then, Socrates engaged in argumentation, not to attain ends destructive of truth or to develop pragmatic skills among lawyers and politicians, but to achieve substantive concepts of truth and goodness.
Socrates’ Life 苏格拉底的生平
Seldom has there been a time and place so rich in genius as the Athens into which Socrates was born in 470 BCE. By this time the playwright
Aeschylus had written some of his great dramatic works. The playwrights Euripides and Sophocles were young boys who would go on to produce great tragedies that Socrates may well have attended. Pericles, who was to usher in a great age of democracy and the flowering of the arts, was still a young man. Socrates may have seen the Parthenon and the statues of Phidias completed during his lifetime. By this time, too, Persia had been defeated, and Athens was becoming a naval power with control over much of the Aegean Sea. Athens had reached a level of unprecedented power and splendor. Although Socrates grew up in a golden age, his declining years were to see Athens defeated in war and his own life brought to an end in prison. In 399 BCE, at the age of 71, he drank hemlock poison in compliance with the death sentence issued by the court that tried him.
Socrates wrote nothing. Most of what we know about him has been preserved by three of his famous younger contemporaries—Aristophanes, Xenophon, and, most importantly, Plato. From these sources Socrates emerges as an intense genius who, along with extraordinary intellectual rigor, possessed a personal warmth and a fondness for humor. He was a robust man with great powers of physical endurance. In his playful comedy The Clouds, Aristophanes depicts Socrates as a strutting waterfowl, poking fun at his habit of rolling his eyes and referring impishly to his “pupils” and “thinking shop.” From Xenophon comes the portrait of a loyal soldier who had a passion for discussing the requirements of morality and who inevitably attracted younger people who sought his advice. Plato confirms this general portrait and in addition pictures Socrates as a man with a deep sense of mission and absolute moral purity. In the Symposium Plato relates how Alcibiades, a fair youth, expected to win the amorous affections of Socrates, contriving in various ways to be alone with him. But, Alcibiades says, “nothing of the sort occurred at all: he would merely converse with me in his usual manner, and when he had spent the day with me he would leave me and go his way.” In military campaigns Socrates could go without food longer than anyone else. Others wrapped themselves up with “unusual care” against the bitter cold of winter, using “felt and little fleeces” over their shoes. But Socrates, Alcibiades says, “walked out in that weather, dressed in a coat that he was always inclined to wear, and he made his way more easily over the ice without shoes than the rest of us did in our shoes.”
Socrates was capable of intense and sustained concentration. On one occasion during a military campaign, he stood in deep contemplation for a day and night, “till dawn came and the sun rose; then walked away after offering a prayer to the sun.” He frequently received messages or warnings from a mysterious “voice,” or what he called his daimon. Although this “supernatural” sign invaded his thoughts from early childhood, it suggests more than anything else Socrates’ “visionary” nature, particularly his sensitivity to the moral qualities of human actions that make life worth living. He must have been familiar with the natural science of the earlier Greek philosophers, although he does say in Plato’s Apology that “the simple truth is, O Athenians, that I have nothing to do with physical speculations.” For him such speculations gave way to the more urgent questions about human nature, truth, and goodness. The decisive event that confirmed his mission as a moral philosopher was the reply of the Delphic Oracle. As the story goes, one day a young religious zealot named Chaerophon went to the temple of Apollo near Delphi and asked whether there was any living person who was wiser than Socrates; the priestess replied that there was not. Socrates interpreted this reply to mean that he was the wisest because he realized and admitted his own ignorance. In this attitude Socrates set out on his quest for unshakable truth and wisdom.
Socrates as a Philosopher 作为哲学家的苏格拉底
Because Socrates left no writings of his own, there is today some disagreement over what philosophical ideas can be properly attributed to him. Our most extensive sources of his thought are the Dialogues of Plato, in which he is the leading character. But the persistent question is whether Plato is here reporting what Socrates actually taught or is expressing his own ideas through the figure of Socrates. Some argue that the Socrates found in Plato’s dialogues is the historically correct Socrates. This would mean that Socrates must get all the credit for the novel philosophical activity these dialogues contain. On this view Plato would get credit only for the literary form he devised for preserving, elaborating on, and lending precision and color to Socrates’ thought. On the other hand, Aristotle distinguished between the philosophical contributions made by Socrates and Plato. Aristotle gave Socrates credit for “inductive arguments and universal definitions,” and to Plato he ascribed the development of the famous theory of Forms—the notion that universal archetypes exist independently of the particular things that embody them. In essence, the argument is over whether Socrates or Plato developed the theory of Forms. Since Aristotle was himself particularly interested in this subject and had discussed it at length with Plato in the Academy, it seems reasonable to suppose that his distinction between Socrates’ and Plato’s ideas is accurate. At the same time some of the early dialogues appear to represent Socrates’ own thought, as in the case of the Apology and the Euthyphro. The most plausible solution to the problem, therefore, is to accept portions of both views. Thus, we can agree that much of the earlier dialogues are portrayals of Socrates’ philosophic activity, while the later dialogues especially represent Plato’s own philosophic development, including his formulation of the metaphysical theory of the Forms. On this basis we should see Socrates as an original philosopher who developed a new method of intellectual inquiry.
If Socrates was to be successful in overcoming the relativism and skepticism of the Sophists, he had to discover some immovable foundation upon which to build an edifice of knowledge. Socrates discovered this foundation within people, and not in the facts of the external world. The inner life, said Socrates, is the seat of a unique activity—the activity of knowing, which leads to the practical activity of doing. To describe this activity, Socrates developed the conception of the soul, or psyche. For him the soul was not any particular faculty, nor was it any special kind of substance. Instead, it was the capacity for intelligence and character; it was a person’s conscious personality. Socrates further described what he meant by the soul as “that within us in virtue of which we are pronounced wise or foolish, good or bad.” By describing it in these terms, Socrates identified the soul with the normal powers of intelligence and character, not as some ghostly substance. The soul was the structure of personality. However difficult it may have been for Socrates to describe exactly what the soul is, he was sure that the activity of the soul is to know and to influence or even direct and govern a person’s daily conduct. Although for Socrates the soul was not a thing, he could say that our greatest concern should be the proper care of our souls so as to “make the soul as good as possible.” We take best care of our souls when we understand the difference between fact and fancy, and thereby build our thought upon a knowledge of what human life is really like. Having attained such knowledge, those who have the proper care of their soul in mind will conduct their behavior in accordance with their knowledge of true moral values. In a nutshell Socrates was primarily concerned with the good life, and not with mere contemplation.
For Socrates the key point in this conception of the soul concerns our conscious awareness of what some words mean. To know that some things contradict others—for example, that justice cannot mean harming others—is a typical example of what the soul can discover simply by using its abilities to know. We thus do violence to our human nature when we act in defiance of this knowledge, such as when we harm someone while fully aware that such behavior is contrary to our knowledge of justice. Socrates was certain that people could attain sure and reliable knowledge, and that only such knowledge could be the proper basis of morality. His first major task, therefore, was to clarify for himself and his followers just how one attains reliable knowledge.